Content in this post
1. Description of the Partizip
2. How to form the german Partizip I & II
3. How to make sentences with the Partizip
4. How to use the Partizips as substantive nouns
Table of content for Partizip I &II

The Particip I & II of german verbs correspond to the present continuous and past participle form of English verbs. These verb-forms are used to make the present continuous and past participle tense respectively in both German and English and are often used as adjectives and substantive nouns in a sentence. In German, the present continuous tense is the same as the present tense of the verb and unlike the Partizip II, Partizip I is not a tense. This is of course not the same as in English. The Partizip I & II of all german verbs are usually derived from their infinitive present tense. This is illustrated below.

Apart from being used as adjectives, the Partizip II is used to make the perfect tense as well as the passive voice in german.

How to form the Partizip I of german verbs

In English , the Partizip I (present continuous tense) is formed by adding the suffix “-ing” to the verb. For example; “spend” in the partizip I becomes “spending”. This is of course not used for conjugation, rather it always require an auxiliary verb which is the conjugated to the subject. For instance; “I am spending…”, “She is eating…” and never “I spending…” etc.

On the other hand, the Partizip I of a german verb is formed by adding a “d” at the end of the infinitive (unconjugated) present tense verb. Some examples of these derivatives are shown below.

InfinitivePartizip IEnglish translation
spielen
sagen
gratulieren
sprechen
ausbilden
ausstehen
aufsetzen
stehen
kommen
singen
tanzen
gehen
schlafen
weinen
verkaufen
gehören
bringen
kochen
steigen
wissen
studieren
reden
spielend
sagend
gratulierend
sprechend
ausbildend
ausstehend
aufsetzen
stehend
kommend
singend
tanzend
gehend
schlafend
weinend
verkaufend
gehörend
bringend
kochend
steigend
wissend
studierend
redend
playing
saying
congratulating
speaking
training
outstanding
laying out
standing
coming
singen
dancing
going
sleeping
crying
selling
belonging
bringing
cooking
stepping
knowing
studying
talking
list of Partizip II

How to use the Partizip I as adjectives

Just like every other adjective, Partizip I when placed before a noun, must have an adjectival end-declension. The difference between this category of german adjectives from the rest is that they are used to indicate that something is still on going. Take for instance “das weinende Baby”, in English this means the crying baby. In a nut shell, this is indicating that the baby is still crying or cries very often. See more examples below

GermanTranslation
1. Wo ist the Mutter von diesem weinenden Baby?

2. Du hast ein ausstehendes Ergebnis.

3. Ich möchte dich am kommenden Wochenende besuchen.

4. Das ist ein singender Mann
Where is the mother of this crying baby?

You have an outstanding result.

I would like to visit you in the coming weekend.

That is a singing man.
Sentences with partzip I

How to form the Partizip II of german verbs

The partizip II of german verbs is formed differently for the various categories of german verbs but they are mostly formed with the prefix ge- except the categories of inseparable verbs and those verbs that end with -ieren. The weak/regemäßige and mixed verbs (with stem vowel change to “-a-” except wissen) as well as verbs that end with the suffix -ieren are formed by conjugating the verb to the third person subject and then the prefix ge- is attached.

Strong verbs on the other hand form their Partizip II by changing the stem vowel in their first syllable before the prefix ge- is attached. Since separable and inseparable verbs have their root verbs as either weak, strong or mixed verbs, their Partizip II is formed likewise except that for separable verbs, the prefix ge- is placed in between the prefix and the root verb while that of inseparable doesn’t take a prefix.

The auxiliary and modal verbs are irregularly formed but also take on the prefix ge-. See a list of these examples below.

Regemäßige and mixed VerbenUnregelmäßige VerbenTrennbare VerbenUntrennbare and -ieren VerbenAuxiliary and Modal verbs
geweint
gemacht
gespielt
gehört
gefeiert
gemalt
gesucht
gerannt
gebracht
gebrannt
gewusst
geholt
genannt
geschrieben
gezogen
gefahren
gestohlen
gegessen
gesessen
geflogen
gebissen
geschnitten
geblieben
gesungen
gegangen
gekommen
ausgeholt
angemacht
angefangen
angestiegen
abgegeben
vorgehabt
weggeschmissen
nachgedacht
zugehört
aufgestanden
weggefahren
eingesetzt
umgezogen
studiert
vermisst
verkauft
zerschnitten
begonnen
gehört
bezahlt
bekommen
interessiert
telefoniert
missbraucht
vermeidet
besucht
gehabt
gekonnt
gewesen
geworden
getan
gemusst
gewollt
gesollt
gedurft
gemocht
Partizip

How to make sentences with Partizip II

GermanEnglish
1. Bitte schmeiß die geöffnete Briefe weg.

2. Where is the frozen cake?

3. Du hast eine Packung geschnittenen Lauch gekauft.
1. Please discard the read letters.

2. Wo ist der gefrorene Kuchen?

You bought a packet of sliced leek
Sentences with Partizip II

Partizip I and II as substantive nouns

Apart from being used as adjectives, the Partizip I and II of german verbs are used to form masculine and feminine nouns (der/die) of people only by adding ”-e/-er/-en” (depending on the preceding article and grammatical case) at the end. To use them as substantive nouns, they are capitalized at the initials and are used alone instead of them being used to describe another noun. Some examples are;

GermanLiteral translationAlternative meaning
Studierende
Verwandte
Angestellte
Reisende
Bekannte
Verletzte
Studying person
Related person
Employed person
Traveling person
Known person
Injured person
Student
Relative
Employee
Traveler
Acquaintance
Injured
Examples of Partizip I & II as substantive nouns
GermanEnglish
1. Ich bin der Angestellte

2. Hast du den Reisenden gesehen, der nach Berlin fährt.

3. Die Lehrerin hat mit allen Studierenden gesprochen.
1. Please discard the read letters.

2. Wo ist der gefrorene Kuchen?

You bought a packet of sliced leek
Sentences with substantive nouns of Partizip I & II

To learn more about how substantive nouns are formed with adjectives see here.

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